Wie Energieträger unsere Landschaften verändern

Die Energieerzeugung hat die Landschaften schon immer mit geprägt. Waren es zu Beginn nur einzelne Wasserkrafträder an Flüssen, so sind es heute Windkrafträder, Photovoltaik Parks, Atommeiler, Kohlekraftwerke oder Biogasanlagen. Doch nicht nur die Anlagen selbst prägen die Umgebung, auch vor- oder nachbereitende Prozessschritte, Zuliefererketten und Abfallverwertung sorgen für erhebliche landschaftliche Einschnitte. Für Wissenschaft und Praxis werden die Themen rund um das Schlagwort „Energielandschaften“ immer wichtiger. Wie können beispielsweise ländliche Räume von den erneuerbaren Energieträgern profitieren? Wie kann man alte Tagebauten oder andere Brachflächen konventioneller Energieerzeugung sinnvoll nachnutzen und renaturieren? Und nicht zuletzt stellt sich auch die Frage, wie man gefährliche Abfälle – wie Atommüll – endlagert ohne Landschaften, Ökosysteme oder die tierische und menschliche Gesundheit zu gefährden.

Chancen und Risiken

Die neue Dezentralität der Energiewirtschaft durch die erneuerbaren Energieträger bringt gerade für ländliche Räume einige Chancen mit sich. Zwar verändern sich die ländlichen Landschaftsbilder dadurch teils erheblich, dennoch sind gerade die positiven ökonomischen Effekte nicht von der Hand zu weisen. Beispielsweise können eigene regionale Energiegenossenschaften die Wertschöpfung der Region durch den Betrieb eigener kleiner Anlagen steigern und dadurch auch in strukturschwachen Regionen für Arbeitsplätze sorgen. Das wiederrum sorgt dafür, dass grundlegende Infrastrukturen auch in ökonomisch schwächeren, vorrangig ländlich geprägten Gebieten erhalten werden können. So wird einer Verödung ländlicher Gebiete und derer Kulturlandschaft vorgebeugt. Doch Flächeninanspruchnahme durch EE-Anlagen führt auch zu Nutzungskonkurrenzen mit anderen Sektoren. Insbesondere die Landwirtschaft, die im ländlichen Raum wohl landschaftsprägendste Form menschlicher Aktivitäten, sieht es nur ungern, wenn plötzlich Energiepflanzen und PV-Freiflächen Anlagen hektarweise Land in Anspruch nehmen.

Herausforderungen in ländlichen Regionen

Experten sehen die zukünftigen Herausforderungen bezogen auf „Energielandschaften“ daher eher in einer nachhaltig sinnvollen Planung und Entwicklung, vorrangig im ländlichen Raum. So können etwaige Zielkonflikte und Nutzungskonkurrenzen schon im Vorfeld vermieden werden. Daneben prägen allerdings auch bereits bestehende energiewirtschaftliche Produktionsformen unsere Landschaften. Auch wenn der Kohleausstieg politisch immer mehr gefordert wird, ist er noch nicht beschlossen. Weiterhin gibt es Tagebauten und regelmäßig kommen neue hinzu. Die großen Löcher haben einen kaum übersehbaren Effekt auf natürliche Landschaften. Geht das Kraftwerk selbst vom Netz, so bleibt der Tagebau übrig, kein besonders schöner Anblick. Schon heute gibt es viele positive Beispiele, wie man die Überbleibsel der Kohlewirtschaft sinnvoll nachnutzt. Gerade in den alten mitteldeutschen Braunkohlerevieren ist eine große Seenplatte rund um Leipzig entstanden. Auch hier profitieren wieder vorrangig die ländlichen Regionen, da auch Kohle eher in ländlichen und dünn besiedelten Gebieten abgebaut wurde. Durch Renaturierungskonzepte, wie dem um Leipzig, wird der Tourismus forciert, was wiederrum die strukturschwachen ländlichen Gebiete stärkt. Gerade für Regionen in der Lausitz oder dem Ruhrgebiet kann dies eine vielversprechende künftige Alternative zur Kohlewirtschaft darstellen, auch wenn diese einen anderen Sektor bedient.

Landschaftsbild wird sich verändern

Alle diese Facetten zeigen wie umfassend die Energiewende auch für Landschaften, Regionen und Raumeinheiten ist. Insbesondere auf dem Land wird man in Zukunft wohl andere Landschaften als noch vor einigen Jahren vorfinden. Die zunehmende Akzeptanz in der deutschen Bevölkerung für erneuerbare Energieträger zeigt allerdings, dass es immer mehr zur Gewohnheit wird, dass EE-Anlagen die Landschaften prägen. Letztlich ist dies insbesondere für strukturschwache ländliche Gebiete auch vielmehr eine Chance als ein Problem.

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